Chrisal Australia is dedicated to helping create a cleaner, healthier and safer environment through the use of probiotics and other natural and sustainable technologies.  As such we are a company dedicated to research, education and life long learning.  Below is some of the research we have compiled around the use and benefits of probiotics in a range of industries.  If you have a question about probiotics, please feel free to email us on This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it or post on our facebook page! If we don't know, we'll find out!

Areas of research include:


Health Effects (Families and Children) Research, Studies and Media Articles.

The effect of Bacillus subtilis mouth rinsing in patients with periodontitis. 

2009 Nov;28(11):1353-6. Epub 2009 Aug 1.

Tsubura S, Mizunuma H, Ishikawa S, Oyake I, Okabayashi M, Katoh K, Shibata M, Iizuka T, Toda T, Iizuka T.Source

Tsubura Dental Clinic, 9-6 Enomachi, Utsunomiya, Tochigi, 320-0802, Japan.  Abstract

Bacillus subtilis is an effective probiotic product for prevention of enteric infections both in humans and animals. We hypothesized that a mouth rinse containing Bacillus subtilis should adhere to and colonize part of the oral bacteria on periodontal tissue. The rinsing ability of Extraction 300E (containing Bacillus subtilis: E-300) was compared with that of a mouth wash liquid , Neosteline Green (benzethonium chloride; NG) that is commonly used in Japan. Compared with NG rinsing, E-300 rinsing resulted in a marked change in the BANA-score. The mean BANA values (score +/- SD) over the course of the study from 0 to 30 days were 1.52 +/- 0.51 (p < or = 0.1) and 0.30 +/- 0.47 (p < or = 0.01) for E-300, and 1.56 +/- 0.51 and 0.93 +/- 0.68 for NG, respectively. Gingival Index also had improvement, while probing pocket depth and bleeding on probing showed small improvements. Mouth rinsing with E-300 significantly reduced periodontal pathogens compared with NG. These results suggest that Bacillus subtilis is an appropriate mouth rinse for patients with periodontitis


Probiotics: Their Potential to Impact Human Health

  • You tube video about the potential of probiotics


Long-term consumption of infant formulas containing live probiotic bacteria: tolerance and safety

  • Jose M Saavedra, Adel Abi-Hanna, Nancy Moore, and Robert H Yolken
  • Background: Nonpathogenic live bacteria are consumed as food by many children, particularly in the form of yogurt. The toleranceand safety of long-term consumption of specific types and strainsof probiotic bacteria are not well documented.
  • Objective: The goal was to evaluate tolerance to formulas containing 2 levels of probiotic supplementation and effects ongrowth, general clinical status, and intestinal health in free-livinghealthy infants.
  • Conclusion: Long-term consumption of formulas supplemented with B. lactis and S. thermophilus was well tolerated and safe and resulted in adequate growth, reduced reporting of colic or irritability, and a lower frequency of antibiotic use. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2004; 79: 261–7.

Fecal bacteria found on cell phones could upset the stomach

  • Digital Journal, October 15th, 2011
  • Now researchers have found E.coli on cell phones- the bacteria found in feces.  The bacteria can lead to an upset stomach just from the thought of putting intestinal bacteria next to your ear.


Probiotics Useful in Preventing Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Preterm Infants

  • MedIndia, August 20, 2011
  • Studies indicate that probiotics play a role in the prevention of the development of necrotizing enterocolitis in premature babies, thus reducing the number of deaths in this population. 


Probiotics in the Treatment and Prevention of Acute Infectious Diarrhea in Infants and Children: A Systematic Review of Published Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trials

  • Journal of Pediatric Gastroenteroly and Nutrition
  • Conclusions: There is evidence of a clinically significant benefit of probiotics in the treatment of acute infectious diarrhea in infants and children, particularly in rotaviral gastroenteritis. Lactobacillus GG showed the most consistent effect, although other probiotic strains may also be effective. Further research is needed. Clinical and statistical heterogeneity of the prophylactic interventions preclude drawing firm conclusions about the efficacy of probiotics in preventing acute gastroenteritis.


Probiotics Affect Metabolism

  • ST. LOUIS—Scientists at Washington University School of Medicine have demonstrated a way to test the effects of probiotic bacteria on digestive health by zeroing in on the community of microbes that naturally live in the intestine and help to digest foods the body can’t on its own.
  • The study, published in the Oct. 26 issue of Science Translational Medicine, establishes a way to understand more fully the complex relationship that exists between diet and the way the gut microbiome operates to digest particular foods.


Anti-Aging: NYC Plastic Surgeon Discovers Fountain of Youth with New BIOS System to Fight Aging

  • "We think we have discovered a genuine Fountain of Youth," says Manhattan-based, 5th Avenue Plastic Surgeon Andrew Mark Klapper, M.D., Diplomat, American Board of Plastic Surgery.


Guidance for Substantiating the Evidence for Beneficial Effects of Probiotics: Prevention and Management of Allergic Diseases by Probiotics

  • Allergy is a hypersensitivity reaction mediated by specific antibody-mediated or cell-mediated immunologic mechanisms and clinically manifested as atopic eczema, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, or asthma. During the recent decades there has been an increase in allergy prevalence, which is attributed to changes in environmental factors.


Catch the beauty bug

Friendly bacteria aren't just good for your tummy - they can boost your skin, too

  • Many people believe that the so-called ‘friendly bacteria’ in yoghurts do wonders for the digestion. New research even claims that these ingredients can help boost our immune systems and control weight.
  • But probiotics (beneficial bacteria) and prebiotics (essential fuel for the beneficial bacteria) aren’t only good for our tummies, they’re also the latest buzzword in beauty — tackling everything from acne to ageing, skin sensitivity to dehydration.

Medical Studies, Research and Media Articles

Microbes may play crucial role in human health, researchers discovering

  • Washington Post, October 10, 2011
  • “In terms of potential for human health, I would place it with stem cells as one of the two most promising areas of research at the moment,” said Rob Knight of the University of Colorado. “We’re seeing an unprecedented rate of discovery. Everywhere we look, microbes seem to be involved.”

Screening for anti-methicillin resistant Staphylococcusaureus (MRSA) bacteriocin producing bacteria

  • Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of the Punjab Lahore, Pakistan.
  • Abstract: Methicillin resistant bacterial infections give a tough challenge in the selection of antibiotics. Traditional use of antibiotics is worsening the problem day by day. So, it is essential to sort out otherstrategies which can replace antibiotic therapy successfully. Bacteriocins are the proteinaceous compounds with a narrower spectrum of antimicrobial activity but its use as antibiotic is not common. No one has ever tried to use it for the treatment of infections. Presently, we have isolated bacteriocinproducing bacteria effective against methicillin resistant bacteria. It will help in controlling MRSAinfections as well as provide a new strategy to treat reemerging infections


Clinical applications of probiotic agents

  • Jose M Saavedra
  • In the past century the beneficial roles of nonpathogenicbacteria in the intestinal lumen were described. In the past decade there has been a dramatic increase in scientific work supporting the concept that there are clinical benefits to ingesting specific nonpathogenic organisms (probiotics). The potential benefits of modifying the intestinal flora composition of certainhigh-risk groups, eg, premature infants, travelers, and children receiving antibiotics, are emerging in the literature...


Quality assurance criteria for probiotic bacteria

  • Elina Tuomola, Ross Crittenden, Martin Playne, Erika Isolauri, and Seppo Salminen
  • Acid and bile stability and intestinal mucosaladhesion properties are among the criteria used to select probioticmicrobes. The quality control of probiotic cultures in foods traditionallyhas relied solely on tests to ensure that an adequate numberof viable bacteria are present in the products throughout theirshelf lives. Viability is an important factor, but not the only criterionfor quality assurance. To be effective, probiotic strains mustretain the functional health characteristics for which they wereoriginally selected.


A Gut-Full of Probiotics for Your Neurological Well-Being

  • Probiotics, often referred to as ‘good bacteria’, are known to promote a healthy gut, but can they promote a healthy mind? Exploring the new world of neurological probiotics, researchers in BioEssays present new ideas on how neurochemicals delivered directly to the gut, via probiotic intestinal microbiota, exert their beneficial effects in maintaining gastrointestinal health and even psychological well-being.
  • The research, led by Professor Mark Lyte from Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, proposes that through a unifying process of microbial endocrinology, neurochemical-producing probiotics could act as a delivery mechanism for neuroactive compounds that could improve a host’s gastrointestinal and psychological health
  • Lyte. M, “Probiotics function mechanistically as delivery vehicles for neuroactive compounds: Microbial Endocrinology in the design and use of probiotics” BioEssays, Wiley-Blackwell, July 2011, DOI: 10.1002/bies.201100024
  • Reid. G, “Neuroactive probiotics”, BioEssays, Wiley-Blackwell July 2011, DOI: 10.1002/ bies.201100074


Golden Staph levels too high at SCGH

  • Sydney Morning Herald, October 28th, 2011
  • One of Perth's biggest public hospitals has failed to meet the national benchmark for deadly superbugs, according to the federal government's MyHospitals website.

Fitness Centre Research, Studies and Media articles

Be Sure Exercise Is All You Get at the Gym

  • New York Times Health, August 2, 2010
  • When you go to the gym, do you wash your hands before and after using the equipment? Bring your own regularly cleaned mat for floor exercises? Shower with antibacterial soap and put on clean clothes immediately after your workout? Use only your own towels, razors, bar soap, water bottles?


National Athletic Trainers’ Association Position Statement: Skin Diseases

  • Journal of Athletic Training 2010;45(4):411–428
  • Objective: To present recommendations for the prevention, education, and management of skin infections inathletes.
  • Background: Trauma, environmental factors, and infectious agents act together to continually attack the integrityof the skin. Close quarters combined with general poorhygiene practices make athletes particularly vulnerable tocontracting skin diseases. An understanding of basicprophylactic measures, clinical features, and swift management of common skin diseases is essential for certifiedathletic trainers to aid in preventing the spread of infectiousagents.
  • Recommendations: These guidelines are intended to provide relevant information on skin infections and to give specificrecommendations for certified athletic trainers and othersparticipating in athletic health care.


Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections Among Competitive Sports Participants --- Colorado, Indiana, Pennsylvania, and Los Angeles County, 2000--2003

  • Centres for Disease Control
  • Although outbreaks of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) usually have been associated with health-care institutions, MRSA is emerging as a cause of skin infections in the community. This report summarizes several reported clusters of skin and soft tissue infections associated with MRSA among participants in competitive sports and identifies possible risk factors for infection (e.g., physical contact, skin damage, and sharing of equipment or clothing). The findings underscore 1) the potential for MRSA infections among sports participants; 2) the need for health-care providers to be aware that skin and soft tissue infections occurring in these settings might be caused by MRSA; and 3) the importance of implementing prevention measures by players, coaches, parents, and school and team administrators.





Animal Research, Studies and Media Articles

Probiotics in Poultry and Pig Nutrition: Basics and Benefits

  • The Poutlry Site,
  • An introduction to the topic by Dr Tobias Steiner of Biomin Holding GmbH, including mode of action and examples of how probiotics can affect poultry and pig performance.


Direct-Fed Microbials Take Another Step Against Salmonella

  • The Poutlry Site,
  • Research at the University of Arkansas poultry health lab has identified a combination of spore isolates from Bacillus species that are effective at reducingSalmonella enteritidis in chickens and turkeys, explains Dr Hargis in the latest newsletter from Food Safety Consortium.


Inhibition of Adhesion of Escherichia coli K88 to Piglet Ileal Mucus by Lactobacillus spp.

  • Department of General and Marine Microbiology, University of Goteborg,Carl Skottsbergs Gata 22, S-413 19 Goteborg, Sweden
  • Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli K88 colonizing the piglet ileum adhere to the mucosa by K88 fimbrial appendages. A recent study in our laboratory has implicated indigenous lactobacilli in the suppression of thecolonization potential of enteropathogenic E. coli as measured by adhesion to ileal mucus. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of LactobaciUlus spp. of porcine origin on the adhesion of K88 fimbriae of E. coli....It was concludedt hat L. fermentum 104R produces a proteinaceous component detectable in spent culture fluid during growthin both complex and defined media; this component inhibits the adhesion of K88ab and K88ac fimbriae to ilealmucus by interacting with mucus components.